Is the Life on Mars?

Are we alone in the universe or is there life on other planets? And perhaps even as close our next door neighbor, the planet Mars?

Mars itself is – because it is further away from our heat source the Sun – a cold desert planet. So far without any signs of life nor liquid water on the surface.

In 2002 the Mars Odyssey Orbiter discovered that large amounts of frozen, below the surface, water (ice) might be present on Mars’ North pole. As water is an essential prerequisite for any life to exist, the Phoenix Mars Lander was dispatched to investigate. The Phoenix landed, safely and as scheduled, on May 25th, 2008. Now it is in the process of using its robot arm to scoop samples of Mars’ soil and examine these in its onboard lab for the presence of water and other substances as well as any signs of current or past life.

What can we expect to find? Could there be any life on Mars?

In many ways, Mars – just like Earth – is a very privileged planet. It is orbiting a steady burning star (our Sun) of the right size and age to provide a rather constant source of light and heat. Mars – just like Earth – is also in a perfectly suited solar system. Of the right age and providing protection from comets and asteroids through the presence of much larger planets (especially Jupiter) in its outer orbits. And Mars – just like Earth – is located at the likely only possible location in its galaxy (the Milky Way) that will provide enough building materials but is not in a (too) heavy populated area of solar systems. The vast, vast majority of solar systems in our (and other) galaxies are located near the center or on the spiral arms. These areas are overcrowded and therefore life destroying collisions (like on a busy intersection of highways) occur quite often. Only planets in solar systems in-between spiral arms (like our solar system) stand even a chance to provide a ‘safe’ environment for life to exist.

So, Mars is off to a promising start and in a much better situation that any other planet we know that might have a chance to be habitable for life. But that does not mean that it is perfect for life (like Earth is).

For starters, it is too cold. Even the simplest organic life forms require average temperatures above freezing and not exceeding the boiling point of water. Mars is therefore too cold with is average temperature below 0 degrees Fahrenheit.

And life requires liquid water. Water – and the presence of at least another 26 essential elements – is a prerequisite to even consider the possibility of life. Therefore the engineers at NASA targeted the Mars polar region not expecting to find current life but perhaps evidence of past life during a time when Mars might have been closer to the Sun and therefore having a more life-inviting temperature.

Still even the presence of liquid water and all other required elements, like carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and so on are not enough to make a planet potentially habitable. Studying life on Earth we now understand and appreciate that organic life also requires other conditions to be ‘just right’, like rotation speed, mass and gravity of the planet, presence and composition of an atmosphere, magnetic field around the planet, volcanic activity, plate tectonics, axial tilt, shape of the orbit, ozone levels and so on.

And if all these conditions at some time in Mars’ history might have all worked out, then that does not automatically imply that life also ‘developed’. Having all the building blocks of life present does not ‘automatically’ build life. Just like the presence of all building materials for a house on a property not ‘automatically’ erects a beautiful residence.

It is exciting to learn more about our universe and the complexity of life by using our most advanced scientific skills to study our neighboring planet. Let us just make sure that we objectively interpret the knowledge we have gained and will gain through the Phoenix Mars Lander and subsequent projects: our Earth is extraordinary uniquely positioned and composed to allow for life to exist. So uniquely and against all statistical odds that it gives a remarkable but resounding testimony to the words of Israel’s King David who wrote almost 3000 years ago:

The heavens declare the glory of God” (Psalm 19:1)

Why ISO 17025 Accreditation important for Laboratory management system?

ISO 17025 Standard is single most important for calibration and testing laboratories around the world. Laboratories that are accredited to this international standard have demonstrated that they are technically competent and able to produce precise and accurate test and calibration data.

What is 17025 Accreditation?

Accreditation is an objective way to assure customers that demonstrated technical competence to provide reliable and accurate test or calibration results. Accreditation is objective because an independent, third party accreditation body performs annual assessments to verify whether system is meeting all of the requirements of ISO 17025 Certification or not. This independent evaluation is important to the customer; because it is an unbiased guarantee that laboratory is performing at its highest level. Accreditation is a voluntary, third party-reviewed process. As part of accreditation, a laboratory’s quality management system is thoroughly evaluated on a regular basis to ensure continued technical competence and compliance with ISO/IEC 17025. Laboratory accreditation can only be granted by an accreditation body.

Time to be taken for achieving ISO 17025 Accreditation:

Generally, the length of time required to complete an accreditation is determined by the desired scope of a laboratory, the number of employees and the complexity of a company’s operations. It takes for a laboratory six months to one year to prepare for the accreditation assessment. The assessment itself, from the day of closure of any applicable nonconformance’s to the issuance of a certificate including Executive Committee review and administrative time required for paperwork and approval, takes approximately 8 weeks to complete.

Benefits by owning ISO 17025 Accreditation:

By achieving ISO 17025 Accreditation to your Laboratory Management System, Organization gain much benefits. One of the main advantages is that laboratory will gain international recognition for its commitment to quality, competency and reliable results. ISO 17025 Accreditation signifies that you are complying with an internationally recognized standard, thus easing the global exchange of valuable information.  When any Organization achieves ISO 17025 Accreditation, Organization will be presented with a certificate of accreditation. This certificate can be used in advertising, promotional literature and stationary to show current and potential customers that your laboratory is committed to quality and has demonstrated technical competency to perform calibration or testing services.

ISO 17025 Accreditation certificate will show potential customers that laboratory values quality and that have taken steps to ensure that calibration or testing results are accurate and reliable. ISO/IEC 17025 Accreditation is available for both freestanding laboratories and for laboratories which are part of larger facilities. If anyone want to solidify their laboratory as a serious competitor, it is imperative that their laboratory management system comply with ISO/IEC 17025. ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation can be a valuable tool. By becoming accredited, one can look forward to an efficient management system, improved calibration or testing, fewer customer complaints and a strong competitive edge.

Pregnancy Complications – Need for Immediate Attention

Complications – Premature Labor

Premature or preterm labor is when a woman goes into labor before the 37 th week of pregnancy, or three weeks before her due date. According to the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, the earlier pre-term labor is spotted and treated, the better chance of stopping it. When symptoms go untreated, the cervix may open and cause an early birth of the baby.

Premature babies need intensive care in the hospital to help with breathing, feeding, and regulation of body temperature. Any woman can have pre-term labor, but some women have a higher risk. Problems with the uterus or placenta and a history of pre-term birth with another pregnancy increase the risk of preterm labor. Dehydration also boosts the chances of pre-term labor.

So make sure your spouse drinks plenty of water especially in warm weather and after exercise to keep from becoming dehydrated. Call your doctor right away if your spouse displays any of these signs of premature labor:

* Contractions – She may or may not feel pain, but her abdomen or stomach will get very hard (feel like it is tightening) and then relax, on and off.
* Menstrual-like cramping – she may or may not be uncomfortable with these cramps that feel like menstrual cramps.
* Gas-type pains – Sharp pains in her stomach, diarrhea or nausea may be a sign of trouble.
* Low pelvic pressure – She may feel like the baby is putting a lot of pressure down very low inside.
* Low backache – She may have a very strong ache in her lower back or could just feel a dull ache in that area.
* Blood from her vagina – Light spotting or a significant amount of blood should be reported to the doctor right away. Blood can be red or brown in color.

Increased discharge from her vagina – Much more discharge than what she is used to during her pregnancy can be a sign of preterm labor. A sudden gush of a lot of water, or a small trickle that is continuous should also be reported to the doctor. Discharge can be watery, pinkish, or brownish in color.

Complications – Some Pregnancy Problems without Symptoms

Some Pregnancy Problems without Symptoms Some health problems your spouse may have during pregnancy do not have warning signs. According to the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, one of these is Group B Streptococcus (GBS) infection. GBS is a common infection that rarely makes adults sick. The bacterium lives in the gastrointestinal system, along with many other harmless bacteria.

According to the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, between 10 to 30 percent of pregnant women carry GBS in their vagina and rectums. But, if GBS is passed to the baby during delivery, it can cause serious health problems in the newborn baby, such as pneumonia, blood infection, or infection of the tissues around the brain.

Because there are no symptoms of GBS, she will be tested at 35 to 37 weeks of pregnancy. The simple test involves swabbing the vagina and rectum for a sample of cells that are sent to a lab to look for GBS. If she is infected, she will be treated with intravenous (IV) antibiotics during labor and delivery to make sure the baby is protected.

Another problem is anemia, or having below-normal levels of iron in the blood. Iron is needed for hemoglobin (a protein in blood that helps take oxygen to body tissues for energy and growth) for your spouse and your baby. Iron also helps build bones and teeth. Most women do not have any symptoms of anemia. For those who do, extreme fatigue is often the only sign. Your doctor will check for signs of anemia using routine blood tests during different stages of the pregnancy. If your spouse has anemia, she will be given iron supplements.

Also an ectopic pregnancy is left untreated, the embryo will continue to grow till it ruptures the fallopian tube. This could result in complications, and may even be fatal for the expecting mother.

According to the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, you can help her prevent anemia by getting her to eat lots of iron-rich foods like lean red meat, potatoes with skins, raisins, broccoli, leafy green vegetables, whole-grain breads and iron-fortified cereals.

Is Methoxetamine safe ?

Methoxetamine is the most current research chemicals that has barely hit the marketplace and at the moment it’s being offered for sale by just a few online pages. Methoxetamine is a research chemical in the Arylcyclohexylamine Research chemical group and is comparable in makeup to the more familiar Ketamine. Alas, in spite of the unique topic of lab exploration offered through research with Ketamine, it’s now limited for usage inside the Gb (with no Veterinary Warrant ). Methoxetamine is the substance label for 2-(3-methoxyphenyl)-2-(ethylamino)cyclohexanone.

Comparable nearly all of other research chemicals, Methoxetamine is not a chemical meant for unexperienced chemists and biologists. Biologists may require a set of chemical scales competent of weighing fewer than 20 mg plus a minimum precision of +-five milligrams inorder to accurately calculate the quantities obligatory for inquiries. Please utilize caution when completing any research and always bear in mind that chemicals like methoxetamine are certainly not intended for Human consumption or any type of in vivo study

Methoxetamine is currently just available through a closed supply network.Methoxetamine is available online now
Please be cautious while getting Methoxetamine from new vendors, It has come toward our attention , there are a lot of internet sites selling bogus rc’s. Checks have before now been conducted on a sellers alleged “Methoxetamine” creation who claims to be selling kilograms of the said product. GC/MS assessments were conducted on the substance furthermore no signs of Methoxetamine had been found, but it has been confirmed as Tiletamine. Tiletamine is used by by vets within the U . s . a . inorder to anesthetize Bears in addition to further “large creatures”
IUPAC CODE used for Methoxetamine :: 2-(3-methoxyphenyl)-2-(ethylamino)cyclohexanone.

Undertake Caution when investing in Methoxetamine by going online, only buy from official companies. While planning to buy methoxetamine, the user can choose from the official brick and mortar shops otherwise they can favor to buy the research drug on the web. Although making a purchase over the world-wide-web it is very important that a customer select the websites which are reputable and sell genuine methoxetamine

It is of value to perform inquiries on the methoxetamine web based website before making a purchase to be assured that the drugs they’ve got are unadulterated and the store is an permitted vendor for the chemical. Authentic distributors shall be trying to maintain their decent location because they’re responsible for their status would ensure that the research chemicals provided for their comsumers are legitimate. The explanation for this is there are a number of bogus sites that endeavor to make the most of the buyers by giving them with the wrong type of drug which may come with various kinds of punishment for possession, use and supply, as well as prison ruling or confiscation of the lab utensils.
Additionally it is crucial for the users to check out the privacy polices of these stores aswell as the shipping policies to ensure their distributer can dispatch any methoxetamine to theirregions. Many of these companies wil be able to transport all over the Uk territory while others can even distribute it to the U.S besides the European union. Anyconsumers will need to determine the delivery procedures besides the return procedures to prevent themselves being sold the product they didn’t want. Reading the return polices can also be important as it will facilitate the user inorder to understand any additional plan of action just in case they need to return the methoxetamine.

How to Determine Purity of Your Silver

Silver being one of the first metals used by human was first the first metal smelted from ore. It’s used dates back to ancient Egyptian empire and was forged into domestic utensils, buttons, horse trapping s, boxes, jewelry and etc. Pure silver is as soft as gold that’s why usually alloyed with copper to straighten its strength and can be used for the making of utensils and other items. Without addition of alloy it would melt because of its softness. Fine silver is almost 999/1000 percent pure but it is too soft to make jewelry out of it thus a metal is added into silver. But anything called silver or sterling silver (which has 92.5 percent pure silver and 7.5 percent metal in it) is pure silver.

Tips to determine purity of silver

Stamps on silver

Recently stamps have been put on silver purity level. T100 means 100 percent purity, B1 means 70 percent purity and B2 means 50 percent purity. Purity of silver is as important as to check purity of gold. Following are simplest ways to determine silver purity.

Black stone method:

One the most popular method of determining silver purity is black stone method which is not scientific methods but still used as to check the purity. According to this method on rubbing piece of silver under an examination on a piece of stone, change in degree of color of a silver gives idea of its purity.

Laboratory test

Laborites’ are equipped with instruments who check purity of jewelry but silver is alloyed with metal can give wrong result. Thus laboratory test should not be first choice.

Acid test

Acid test is the best scientific method to test silver purity because every metal will be melted in acid but silver is acid proof. Thus if a silver jewelry does not melt it indicates its purity.

Level of brown-ness in acid

Another way is to check level of brown-ness of acid in which silver is dipped. But this method is not convenient to every consumer so it can be used in laboratories. But the best way is acid testing method.

Apart from these, there are plenty of purity detection laboratories too, these labs are equipped with all modern devices and instruments, the main problem with these labs are that it is quite difficult to measure the purity of samples of jewelry with intricate craft-man ship and lots of alloys. Labs are therefore a second preference in most cases. In case of any such difficulties, the acid test is supposed to be the best help, mainly because though all the other materials in an alloy will melt in acid, silver will not. Another very popular way to test the purity of silver is an analysis of the level of brownness in the acid in which silver has been dipped. Fraud however is not detectable by this method, because obviously, this method cannot be used by customers at all times.

The main World standard of fineness for silver products is sterling, or standard silver. The term sterling owes its origin to the British currency standard, which in turn comes from the term ‘Osterling silver’, as originally produced by the Osterling of Germany. Sterling silver has a specific gravity of 10.3. Sterling silver is not pure enough to take vitreous enamels well and the higher Britannia silver quality of 95.84% is often used for this. Some other countries have lower silver standards of 80% and 83%.

Source by Arooj Fatima

Indoor Home Security Wireless WiFi IP Camera from Aoni

Concerned about your baby, home and stuff in your house when you are not at home? With an Aoni wifi IP camera, wireless home security system or wireless IP camera there is no need to run wires around your home or office.
Wireless home security systems act as a visible deterrent to criminals, allowing you to record events at home and monitor staff at work. Some of our wifi cameras also connect to wireless monitors allowing you IP camera and record footage from your security camera. You can also now get cameras with one and two way audio, allowing you communicate with family or friends remotely while checking in on them. It also can be used as a baby monitor to watch over your babies while you are not at home.
This wifi baby monitor will monitor for 24 hours a day, detect motions and audio events and send notifications. If there is movement detected while you are away or some strange sound is heard, the smartphone will send you alerts so that you can detect and monitor immediately. It requires lower cost than traditional CCTV systems. While offering digital high-quality video data over the Internet, you can monitor via PC, smartphone or tablet from anywhere at any time. It also offer real-time two-way audio. You can always connect to your world you care most.

About Aoni
Shenzhen Aoni Eletronic Industry Co., Ltd is one of the world’s leading manufacturers of headphones, IP cameras and car DVRs. Based in Shenzhen, China, Aoni has built its own state-of-the-art factory including sophisticated facilities such as Cloud Service Lab, SMT machines and professional manufacturing workshops. The cutting-edge products that are optimally tailored to its customers’ needs have been used in over 60 countries and gained great reputation by having mutual trust relationships with more than 100 business partners all over the world. Aoni was founded in 2003 and today has over 1,000 employees around the world that share a passion for video and audio technology.

With the best quality products, competitive prices and services exceeding our customers’ expectations, we are one of the largest IP camera manufacturers in China. We responsibly design, manufacture and provide full services on R&D, production, sales, tech-support and OEM/ODM. On the basis of firmly established reputation in the leading IP camera industry, our overall goal is to further develop the company as a global IP video products and solutions provider. We sincerely welcome valuable business partners to join us and develop together.

Up to now, we have more than 1,000 employees including 80 R&D personnel and 70 production engineers. Focused on the best in quality and customer experience, we have passed ISO 9001:2008-certified, and our products are also qualified for CE, FCC, RoHS and other standards. We provide all kinds of samples which the client can choose from. We will send the sample within 1 to 7 days after having received the sample fee. Meanwhile, we also welcome the sample development of special requirements.

Lyme Disease Symptoms and Treatments

What is Lyme Disease?

Lyme disease is a multistage bacterial infectious disease that attacks multiple systems in the human body. Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium known as Borrelia burgdorferi or “spirochete” which being spread by tick bites. Spirochetes are pleomorphic means that they can appear as two or more completely different organisms. This makes both diagnosis and treatment of lyme disease tricky because they are capable of shape-shifting and can fool both the body’s immune system and the antibiotics deployed to destroy them.

Other bacteria which can expose to the disease is Borrelia afzeli commonly found in Europe.The bacterium is spread through bites of infected tick. The blacklegged tick can be found on deer (deer tick, Ixodes scapularis) and susceptible for most cases of the disease in northeastern, mid-Atlantic, and north-central United States. To transmit the bacterium, the tick must be attach to human body part for at least 36-48 hours or more. The ticks commonly attach at the human body areas such as the groin, armpits, and scalp. Although Lyme disease is an infectious disease, the disease can’t be transmitted from person to person.

What are the symptoms of Lymes disease?

The symptoms of can be divided into three phases – early, mild and late phase.
Common symptoms of early stage is a distinctive circular skin rash, known as erythema chronicum  migrans.The common size of erythema migrans rash is around 5 to 30 cm in diameter.
In the early stage, the lymes diseases shows other symptoms pertaining to flu-like symptoms and the symptoms include:
•    tiredness (fatigue)
•    muscle pain
•    joint pain  
•    headache  
•    fever or chills
•    neck stiffness  

Lymes Disease Treatment

Antibiotics, is available in the disease treatment, which is also the primary treatment for Lyme disease. It is effective and almost all patients recover after antibiotic treatment. Nevertheless, curing may take weeks to months after finishing antibiotic treatment. Information about disease treatment is very important. Such details about prevention and cure may be found on the internet with deep explanations on physical therapies. Visiting your therapist will also help much because you get one on one advice on what should be done. Quick recovering will come as a result of adhering exactly to precautions and therapies.

How to Diagnose It Lymes Disease

The lymes disease diagnosis is accomplished based on the symptoms of lymes disease and a history of possible exposure to tick bites. Find out more about lyme disease symptoms. Laboratory blood tests are other helpful diagnosis tools in the patient who have the symptoms of lymes disease.

Free Will And Your Brain's Pleasure Centre

It’s not your conscious mind that makes allegedly ‘free will’ decisions but rather some structure or something far more basic and primitive that all creatures great and small with what could reasonably be called a ‘brain’ share – a pleasure seeking; pain avoidance mechanism – the brain’s ‘pleasure center’. Faced with either/or choices this pleasure center will make you involuntarily or at least subconsciously choose that option which gives it maximum pleasure and minimum pain or discomfort or angst. Thus, faced with a choice of sitting down to a meal of a freshly cooked juicy steak or rotting raw meat complete with maggots, your pleasure center says what you will choose, not what your will free will choose – the steak. 


There is no such thing as free will because free will almost always implies making a choice between equals and in reality that never happens. Free will is like saying you have a choice between having a seventh inning stretch hot dog and beer at the ballgame or a seventh inning stretch hot dog and beer at the ballgame. Closer to reality, there’s usually a clear enough cut distinction between choosing this and choosing that, that the ultimate choice is a no-brainer.


There is no such thing as a neural pathway that leads to a “T”-junction where the neural bits and pieces are forced to go decision-left or decision-right. Rather, there are two (or more) parallel neural pathways that arise in many cases out of the memory databank that holds your options. All of those options are unique and different and aren’t equal in possible value to you, or rather your brain. All decisions arising between these options are relative because the options are relative in terms of degrees of goodness or badness. You may have a choice between wine, women or song; a choice between a harem, riches or political power; a choice between hanging, the electric chair or the firing squad.


What does your brain always try to maximize? The brain tries to maximize pleasure and good times and comfort. The brain tries to minimize unpleasant things, bad times, pain, discomfort, and so on. In your choice between wine, women and song, one of the three will seem to be the best of all possible choices and one of the three will be the worst of all of the three options. The same applies to a choice between a harem, riches or political power. Ditto to a choice between hanging, the electric chair or the firing squad.


Your brain has a ‘pleasure center’ which always opts for the most pleasant option when faced with a range of options. When you consider an option, often based on a previous experience, a certain rush of neural transmitters – pleasure chemicals or other chemicals that block out pain – goes to your brain’s pleasure center. Another option provides yet another rush of pleasure chemicals or particles or whatever. Whatever option provides the greatest amount of pleasure particles to your brain’s pleasure center wins. You ‘choose’ that option. It might look like free will but it’s the brain’s primitive pleasure center calling the shots. This applies even if the cosmos is a deterministic cosmos.


Likewise, your brain has a repulsion center that acts to push you away from repulsive things and towards pleasurable things. You might be innately responsive to avoiding repulsive things but in comparing any two things, one thing is going to be relatively more repulsive relative to the other. Choices are all relative; never equal. Consider the five senses:


Sight: You’re faced with a choice (if male) of dating a Playboy pinup or an 80 year old woman. If a female, your choice is between a 20 year old male model or an 80 year old potbellied, bald, codger / dirty old man. Or perhaps you have a choice between watching optical illusions or images of decomposing corpses.


Sound: You’re faced with a choice between an hour of listening to a jackhammer, fingernails scraping against a blackboard, a human screaming, an album of Beatles’ songs or a Mozart symphony.


Smell: You’re faced with a choice between enduring an hour smelling rotting garbage, classic rotten egg odor, ammonia, a rose or salty sea spray.


Taste: You have to taste either vinegar, a cockroach, maggot filled meat, beer or pepperoni.


Touch: You have a choice: one hour of a heating pad, one hour of acupuncture, one hour of tickling, or one hour of a very cold shower.


Now consider some of the following examples of alleged aspects of free will that might really be best explained by deferring to your brain’s pleasure center: self-control; planning; rational choice; changing your behavior; initiative and a catchall ‘just for the hell of it’.


# You might decide to become a politician because the idea of getting your snout in the trough really appeals to your pleasure center.


# You might decide to do something you’d rather not do now, because your reward will be as a consequence greater later on down the track for your current sacrifice.


# Whatever you decide you decide because that choice maximizes your pleasure even though that might mean doing something you don’t really want to do just because your status will be elevated if you do it. 


# Some people might do bad things like rape, robbing a bank, murder, etc. because that activity rewards their brain’s pleasure center more than not doing that bad activity. 


# You might decide to raise your right arm since the very act proves to you that you’re in control and proves to yourself that you can do it if you want to. That control over your own body gives you pleasure.


# Why do women love to go shopping nearly all the time for clothes and especially for shoes even if they don’t need more clothes and more shoes. Because the shopping experience positively stimulates their brain’s pleasure center. 


# If a $500 dress brings more pleasure than a $50 dress, you’ll buy the $500 dress. Although, if buying the $500 dress will cause a lot of strife at home you might not buy the $500 dress if avoiding strife gives greater pleasure than the $500 dress. So you might then opt for the $50 dress or no dress at all.


# Why do addicts of any kind – drugs, alcohol, gambling, tobacco, etc. – always seek another fix? They do it to stroke their brain’s pleasure center.


# How hot do you like your shower? Probably just as hot as what brings you maximum pleasure given feedback to you from your brain’s pleasure center.


# Do you get greater satisfaction or pleasure if you strike out on purpose or try (but fail) to hit a home run? No doubt the later.


# Buying a house is a Big decision so you really want to maximize stroking your brain’s pleasure center. 


# Taking the short, direct route is more pleasurable than the long, winding convoluted way around because it is faster and cheaper – unless sightseeing is the objective of course.


# Sexual fantasies stimulate the pleasure center in the way that mental stimulation in filling out your tax return doesn’t – but you still do your tax return since going to jail for tax avoidance/evasion is even a more unpleasant alternative.


Now say you have a choice between wearing a red tie or a blue tie to work. Are the ties equal? No, not if the red tie was a present by your mother who you like and the blue tie a present from your aunt who you don’t like as much. Further, the red tie might tend to go better with your wardrobe than the other and the red tie might have attracted a complement from an attractive woman at work whereas the blue tie never has. So, which tie are you going to wear? Which tie has the potential to give maximum pleasure to your brain’s pleasure center?


What about Unknown/Untried Choices?


Even when making a choice between two things you’ve never experienced before, there will still be enough of a distinction, of distinctive clues, to decide the outcome. For example, consider two never before tried holiday spots. One never before tried potential holiday destination is in a country that strikes you as slightly less desirable compared to untried and potential holiday destination number two in another country that you identify a bit more with. Or perhaps holiday number one choice costs more than holiday number two choice for the same set of experiences. Your pleasure center rewards getting more holiday bang for your vacation buck. As another example, take two untried food dishes. Perhaps one just sounds more appealing or maybe one has ingredients you’re slightly less partial to or are unknown compared to the competing dish of choice. [This reminds me of our local restaurant/food reviewer/critic where you (or at least I) need a gastronomic dictionary in order to understand the nature of the food dish she’s endorsing.] You’re adventurous but not that adventurous and your pleasure center tells you that discretion is the better part of valor. 


What about Animal ‘Free Will’?


Lab animals are known to keep pressing a lever in order to provide a constant flow of pleasurable stimulations to their own brain’s pleasure center.


Now I have two cats who are faced every day with a choice between three bowls of different cat food. How do the cats decide? Do they have free will choice? No, I suspect not because they opt for whatever food bowl provides maximum enjoyment to their brain’s pleasure center. They, at any given moment, like one bowl over the other two.


In wintertime my cats will seek out the warmest place they can find, be it a sunny spot, under the quilt, on the lap, even lying on directly on top of the gas duct when the heat is on. Why? Yep, it’s all about stimulating their brain’s pleasure center.


Even if you disagree with all of the above, you can’t resolve the free will issue on the grounds that you can’t go back in time to make your alternate choice. You get one go, one decision and you can never be absolutely certain it wasn’t your brain’s pleasure center calling the shots. 

Determine A Carmel Vet That Can Suit Your Intended Purpose

There are many services that are offered by a Carmel Vet. You need to determine a pet clinic that offers the best quality of pet services.

There can be least denying the verity that a Vet is the second best friend of your pet. A majority of all individuals is interested in visiting a veterinary that is situated within a close distance. The fact that every pet deserves a healthy lifestyle is one of the reasons behind the need to consider visiting a professional animal clinic. A pet clinic offering services in Carmel that has the right kind of experience, knowledge and skill can guarantee you with the right type of healthcare services.

Services Offered

The kitty of services that a Vet makes available for your pet need to be taken into account if you are interested in fixing an appointment along with the pet clinic. The different services you can always expect from a recognized clinic include in-house laboratory, full-service pharmacy, advanced diagnostics, grooming and wellness care. Apart from the above-mentioned services, you can also consider benefitting from an array of other pet healthcare services including; dental care, ultrasound, telemedicine and surgical treatment facilities.

Consider Involved Cost

The involved cost is also one of the other important aspects that need to be taken into the estimation if you are looking forward towards availing the benefit of these services. There are a few veterinaries that demand a higher cost as compared to the others. Also, it is important to remember that depending upon the length for which the treatment facilities are made available the cost varies accordingly. It is necessary to make a concerted effort in order to find a pet clinic that can offer you with payment plans that can fit your purpose in the right manner.

Quality Of Services

Quality of treatment offered by the Carmel Vet is also yet another aspect that needs to be taken into account. Some of the points you need to focus upon include unique competencies of veterinarians and whether the web reviews reflect that the clinic has made available outstanding care to the previous health service seekers. One of the other best ways that can assist you in gaining a fairer level of estimate about the quality of services offered by the clinic in Carmel is asking for referrals. It indeed is always a nice thought to make a concerted effort so as to learn about the types of services offered prior to availing the services offered by the pet clinic. With the advent of the internet, it has become a lot easier to find the right pet clinic that can suit your purpose.

GLU University: Admission Process

GLA University is a private college affirmed by the AICTE, situated in Mathura Uttar Pradesh, India. GLA University, Mathura is endorsed and perceived by University Grants Comission (UGC), NCTE and Pharmacy Council of India.

The university has different institutes affiliated to it that offer various courses in different departments of education. The institutes are:

  • Institute of Engineering and Technology
  • Institute of Applied Science and Humanities
  • Institute of Business Management
  • Institute of Pharmaceutical Research
  • University of Polytechnic
  • Faculty of Education

GLU university is spread across 100 acres of land and there are more than 20,000 students enrolled in different professional courses every year. The university employs over 400 qualified teachers and over 500 staff members. The campus has all advanced facilities from air conditioned classrooms to well equipped libraries, well maintained hostel and mess to online lectures, campus connect programs and prestigious faculties. Equivalently supporting infrastructure which includes a well stocked Library, Hi-tech Computer lab, Faculty Rooms.

Students may apply online on their official site. GLA University shortlists students on the basis of their score in GLAET. The eligibility criteria of all the offered courses are different. The exam pattern and the syllabus is also different for all the courses. The entrance test for B. Tech is of 2 hours. The test has four sections- Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, and English. The total marks of the test is 90.

The entrance test for BBA, B.Com, BCA etc is of 1 hour. The test has four sections namely- General Knowledge, Mathematics, English, and Reasoning. The total marks of the test is 40 marks.

Candidates must refer to the official site for the details of the test and the syllabus of the same. The University also offers various scholarship programs for students. Some of the scholarships offered by the university are:

A) For B tech Students: A grant of worth Rs. 33,000/ – per annum for the hopefuls having more than 90% imprints in Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics at 10+2 level according to qualification requirement.Note: The understudy needs to keep up a base CPI of 8.25 to profit the grant in the following year of his/her studies.

B) For B Pharm understudies: A grant worth Rs. 25,000/ – per annum for the competitors having more than 90% imprints in Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics/Biology at 10+2 according to qualification requirement.Note: The understudy needs to keep up a base CPI of 8.25 to profit the grant in the following year of his/her studies.

C) For M Tech understudies: GATE qualified applicants will be given grant according to University standards. Non-Gate Candidates will be given Scholarship per annum as takes after (on the premise of Qualifying examination rate): i) 65% to 75% :- Rs 60,000/ – ii) 75% + :- Rs 72,000/ – Note: The understudy needs to keep up a base CPI of 6.75 to benefit the grant in the following year of his/her studies.

D) For M Pharm. Understudies: A Scholarship for each annum as takes after (on the premise of Qualifying examination rate): i) 65% to 75% :- Rs 60,000/ – ii) 75% + :- Rs 72,000/ – Note: The understudy needs to keep up a base CPI of 6.75 or 8.25 to profit the grant of Rs. 60,000 or Rs. 72,000 separately in the following year of his/her studies.

E) For M. Sc. Understudies: Scholarship worth Rs. 24000/ – , Rs. 18000/ – and Rs. 12000/ – per semester for main three candidates.

F) For Ph.D. Understudies: A showing Assistant boat of Rs. 20,000/ – every month will be given to chose research researchers from Engineering discipline only.2. Grant for general and OBC competitors (Economically powerless): Those understudies whose guardians yearly pay is less then Rs 1 lakh are qualified to benefit grant through social welfare division (Samaj Kalyan Vibhag) of UP Govt.3. Grant for SC/ST Candidates:Those understudies whose guardians yearly salary is less then Rs 1 lakh are qualified to profit grant through social welfare office (Samaj Kalyan Vibhag) of UP Govt.